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علوم تخصصی دامپزشکی و پزشکی

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The Effects of Smoking on Your Heart

Heart Disease

 

Study: Reduce Smoking, Boost Heart Health

Suzanne Rostler
Reuters Health

 

NEW YORK - Smokers who quit or even just cut down on cigarettes can begin to reap the health benefits within a few months, new study findings suggest.

In the study, individuals who gradually quit smoking saw improvements in risk factors for heart disease, including lower cholesterol and carbon monoxide levels. The findings may encourage some of the millions of smokers worldwide to cut back on tobacco, which will cause an estimated 10 million deaths a year by 2030, report researchers led by Dr. Bjorn Eliasson from Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Goteborg, Sweden.

"Smoking reduction results in improvements in established cardiovascular risk factors...which has the potential to benefit individual and public health," the authors write.

Over 4 months, 33 adults who had smoked 15 or more cigarettes a day for at least 3 years reduced and tried to quit smoking. To help curb their cravings, they used a nicotine-containing nasal spray manufactured by Pharmacia Consumer Healthcare, which funded the study.

After 9 weeks, participants had cut their smoking in half, on average. Levels of carbon monoxide declined by about 17%, while total cholesterol and LDL ("bad") cholesterol levels also fell. Meanwhile, HDL ("good") cholesterol rose, and the blood's capacity to transport oxygen also improved, Eliasson's team reports in the August issue of Nicotine & Tobacco Research.

Carbon monoxide is a byproduct of tobacco smoke that has been found to boost cholesterol, levels of white blood cells and other risk factors for heart disease. The gas can also impair the blood's ability to transport oxygen throughout the body, which may raise the risk of heart attack.

According to previous research cited in the report, reducing total cholesterol by up to 9% and reducing LDL cholesterol by just 1% can lower a person's risk of heart disease.

"Reduction (of smoking) is a step in the right direction, especially for those that are not quite ready to stop yet," Eliasson told Reuters Health, although he added that it could be difficult for some people to maintain a lower level for a long period of time.

SOURCE: Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2001 August.

Smoking - Heart Circulation

Smokers are more than 5 times as likely as nonsmokers to develop abdominal aortic aneurysms. (Reuters March 2004)

Nicotine can trigger palpitations. (Longevity, May 1991)

Among people over 65, smokers have four to eight times the risk of an aneurysm than the average person’s risk: those with high blood pressure have double the risk. (“Deceptive Pain,” Discover magazine, Jan. 2001)

Smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke both significantly hasten hardening of the arteries, and the damage may be permanent, says a study at Wake Forest University. (“Smoking linked to hardening of the arteries,” AP, The Daily Progress, Charlottesville, Virginia, Jan. 14, 1998)

Smoking may account for a 50% increase in the development of arteriosclerosis (the buildup of plaque along arterial walls) for current smokers, and 25% for past smokers. (Delicious! magazine, May 1998)

In the winter, smokers may be at an increased risk of heart disease due to higher blood pressure and heart rate, say researchers in Israel. Although winter blood pressure readings are typically higher for most people, in smokers the average increase in systolic blood pressure was twice the increase in non-smokers. (“Cold Weather Raises Heart Risk for Smokers,” heartinfo.org - June 2001)

Smoking damages the arteries to the heart and brain, thereby increasing the risk of heart attack and stroke. ( British Medical Journal 1996, in Health Gazette newsletter, Feb. 1997)

Cigarette smoking harms the body by raising cholesterol levels and blood pressure. (“Addictive Substances: Nicotine,” Let’s Live magazine, Oct. 1996)

One cigarette can impair circulation for up to 45 minutes by constricting the small blood vessels. (The narrow vessels in the feet are particularly vulnerable to the damaging effects). (Hara Podiatrist Group, Covina, Ca., Prevention magazine, Dec. 1987)

Facts About Heart Disease and Women: Kicking The Smoking Habit

CORONARY HEART DISEASE is a woman's concern. Every woman's concern. One in ten American women 45 to 64 years of age has some form of heart disease, and this increases to one in five women over 65. Another 1.6 million women have had a stroke. Both heart disease and stroke are known as cardiovascular diseases, which are serious disorders of the heart and blood vessel system.

Cigarette smoking is a habit that greatly increases your chances of developing cardiovascular diseases. Surprising as it may seem, smoking by women in this country causes almost as many deaths from heart disease as from lung cancer. If you smoke, you are two to six times more likely to suffer a heart attack than a nonsmoking woman, and the risk increases with the number of cigarettes you smoke each day. Smoking also boosts the risk of stroke.

The Effects of Smoking on the Heart

Introduction

Each year, tobacco smoking accounts for around approximately 20% of all heart disease deaths.

What is Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)?

CHD has two principal forms - angina and heart attacks. Both occur because the arteries carrying blood to the heart muscle become blocked or narrowed, usually by a deposit of fatty substances, a process known as atherosclerosis. Angina is a severe pain in the chest brought on by exertion and relieved by rest. A heart attack is due to obstruction of a coronary artery either as a result of atherosclerosis or a blood clot: part of the heart muscle is deprived of oxygen and dies.

Risk factors for Coronary Heart Disease

Cigarette smoking, raised blood cholesterol and high blood pressure are the most firmly established, non-hereditary risk factors leading to CHD with cigarette smoking being the "most important of the known modifiable risk factors for CHD", according to the US Surgeon General. A cigarette smoker has two to three times the risk of having a heart attack than a non-smoker. If both of the other main risk factors are present then the chances of having a heart attack can be increased eight times. At least 80% of heart attacks in men under 45 are thought to be due to cigarette smoking. At this age, heavy smokers have 10 to 15 times the rate of fatal heart attacks of non-smokers. Even light smokers are at increased risk of CHD: a US study found that women who smoked 1-4 cigarettes a day had a 2.5-fold increased risk of fatal coronary heart disease.

The role of smoking in Coronary Heart Disease

Inhaling tobacco smoke causes several immediate responses within the heart and its blood vessels. Within one minute of starting to smoke, the heart rate begins to rise: it may increase by as much as 30 percent during the first 10 minutes of smoking. Smoking also raises blood pressure: blood vessels constrict which forces the heart to work harder to deliver oxygen to the rest of the body. Meanwhile, carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke exerts a negative effect on the heart by reducing the blood's ability to carry oxygen.

Smoking and arterial disease

Smoking tends to increase blood cholesterol levels. Cigarette smokers also have raised fibrinogen levels and platelet counts which make the blood more sticky. Carbon monoxide attaches itself to haemoglobin much more easily than oxygen does. This reduces the amount of oxygen available to the tissues. All these factors make smokers more at risk of developing various forms of atherosclerotic disease. As the atherosclerotic process progresses, blood flows less easily through rigid and narrowed arteries and the blood is more likely to form a thrombosis (clot). This sudden blockage of an artery may lead to a fatal heart attack, a stroke or gangrene of the leg.

Aneurysm

Is a ballooning of the wall of an artery which leads to risk of bursting or clotting, which may lead to catastrophic results. Smokers are very much more likely to die from a ruptured aneurysm of the abdominal aorta than non-smokers.

Peripheral vascular disease (PVD)

Smokers have a 16 times greater risk of developing peripheral vascular disease (blocked blood vessels in the legs or feet) than people who have never smoked. Smokers who ignore the warning of early symptoms and continue to smoke are more likely to develop gangrene of a leg.

Cigarette smoking combines with other factors to multiply the risks of atherosclerosis. Patients who continue to smoke after surgery for PVD are more likely to relapse, leading to amputation, and are more likely to die earlier.10

Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger's Disease)

This is a rare form of PVD, and is virtually always due to heavy cigarette smoking. It consists of an inflammatory condition of small vessels that leads to blocking of the arteries and gangrene. Few sufferers are able to stop and many of them end up with multiple amputations.

Stroke

Smokers are more likely to develop a cerebral thrombosis (stroke) than non-smokers. A form of cerebral haemorrhage (subarachnoid) is more common in smokers, especially among women who also take the contraceptive pill.

 

+ نوشته شده در  شنبه بیست و هشتم دی 1387ساعت 19:50  توسط مدیر وبلاگ  | 

What Are the Risk Factors for Heart Disease?

Risk factors are conditions or habits that make a person more likely to develop a disease. They can also increase the chances that an existing disease will get worse. Important risk factors for heart disease that you can do something about are:

High blood pressure

High blood cholesterol

Diabetes

Smoking

Being overweight

Being physically inactive

Having a family history of early heart disease

Age (55 or older for women)

Some risk factors, such as age and family history of early heart disease, can't be changed. For women, age becomes a risk factor at 55. After menopause, women are more apt to get heart disease, in part because their body's production of estrogen drops. Women who have gone through early menopause, either naturally or because they have had a hysterectomy, are twice as likely to develop heart disease as women of the same age who have not yet gone through menopause. Another reason for the increasing risk is that middle age is a time when women tend to develop risk factors for heart disease. Family history of early heart disease is another risk factor that can't be changed. If your father or brother had a heart attack before age 55, or if your mother or sister had one before age 65, you are more likely to get heart disease yourself.

While certain risk factors cannot be changed, it is important to realize that you do have control over many others. Regardless of your age, background, or health status, you can lower your risk of heart disease—and it doesn't have to be complicated. Protecting your heart can be as simple as taking a brisk walk, whipping up a good vegetable soup, or getting the support you need to maintain a healthy weight.

Some women believe that doing just one healthy thing will take care of all of their heart disease risk. For example, they may think that if they walk or swim regularly, they can still smoke and stay fairly healthy. Wrong! To protect your heart, it is vital to make changes that address each risk factor you have. You can make the changes gradually, one at a time. But making them is very important. Other women may wonder: If I have just one risk factor for heart disease—say, I'm overweight or I have high blood cholesterol—aren't I more or less "safe"? Absolutely not. Each risk factor greatly increases a woman's chance of developing heart disease. But having more than one risk factor is especially serious, because risk factors tend to "gang up" and worsen each other's effects. So, the message is clear: Every woman needs to take her heart disease risk seriously—and take action now to reduce that risk.

+ نوشته شده در  پنجشنبه نوزدهم دی 1387ساعت 20:33  توسط مدیر وبلاگ  | 

 

 

Heart Disease: Risk Factors for Heart Disease

Some heart disease risk factors you can control and some you cannot. Coronary artery disease causes roughly 1.2 million heart attacks each year, and more than forty percent of those suffering from a heart attack will die. Even more worrisome, 335,000 people with heart attacks will die in an emergency department or before ever reaching the hospital. According to the American Heart Association, over 7 million Americans have suffered a heart attack in their lifetime.

What Are the Risk Factors for Heart Disease?

There are several risk factors for heart disease; some are controllable, others are not. Uncontrollable risk factors include:

Male sex

Older age

Family history of heart disease

Post-menopausal

Race (African Americans, American Indians, and Mexican Americans are more likely to have heart disease than Caucasians)

Still, there are many risk factors that can be controlled. By making changes in your lifestyle, you can actually reduce your risk for heart disease. Controllable risk factors include:

Smoking.

High LDL, or "bad" cholesterol and low HDL, or "good" cholesterol.

Uncontrolled hypertension (high blood pressure).

Physical inactivity.

Obesity (more than 20% over one's ideal body weight).

Uncontrolled diabetes.

High C-reactive protein.

Uncontrolled stress and anger.

What Can I Do to Lower My Risk of Heart Disease?

Making changes in your lifestyle is a proven method for reducing your risk of developing heart disease. While there are no guarantees that a heart-healthy lifestyle will keep heart disease away, these changes will certainly improve your health in other ways, such as improving your physical and emotional well being. Also, because some risk factors are related to others, making changes in one area can benefit other areas.

Here are some ways you can reduce your risk of heart disease.

Quit smoking. Smokers have more than twice the risk for heart attack as nonsmokers. Smoking is also the most preventable risk factor. If you smoke, quit. Better yet, never start smoking at all. Nonsmokers who are exposed to constant smoke also have an increased risk.

Improve cholesterol levels. The risk for heart disease increases as your total amount of cholesterol increases. Your total cholesterol goal should be less than 200 mg/dl; HDL, the good cholesterol, higher than 40 mg/dl in men and 50 mg/dl in women (and the higher the better); and LDL should be less than 130 mg/dl in healthy adults. For those with diabetes or multiple risk factors for heart disease, LDL goal should be less than 100 mg/dl (some experts recommend less than 70 mg/dl if you are very high risk). Interpretation and treatment of cholesterol values must be individualized, taking into account all of your risk factors for heart disease. A diet low in cholesterol and saturated and trans fat will help lower cholesterol levels and reduce your risk for heart disease. Regular exercise will also help lower "bad" cholesterol and raise "good" cholesterol. Medications are often needed to reach cholesterol goals.

Control high blood pressure. About 60 million people in the U.S. have hypertension, or high blood pressure, making it the most common heart disease risk factor. Nearly one in three adults has systolic blood pressure (the upper number) over 140, and/or diastolic blood pressure (the lower number) over 90, which is the definition of hypertension. Like cholesterol, blood pressure interpretation and treatment should be individualized, taking into account your entire risk profile. Control blood pressure through diet, exercise, weight management, and if needed, medications.

Control diabetes. If not properly controlled, diabetes can lead to significant heart damage including heart attacks and death. Control diabetes through a healthy diet, exercise, maintaining a healthy weight and taking medications as prescribed by your doctor.

Get active. Many of us lead sedentary lives, exercising infrequently or not at all. People who don't exercise have higher rates of death and heart disease compared to people who perform even mild to moderate amounts of physical activity. Even leisure-time activities like gardening or walking can lower your risk of heart disease. Most people should exercise 30 minutes a day, at moderate intensity, on most days. More vigorous activities are associated with more benefits. Exercise should be aerobic, involving the large muscle groups. Aerobic activities include brisk walking, cycling, swimming, jumping rope and jogging. If walking is your exercise of choice, use the pedometer goal of 10,000 steps a day. Consult your doctor before starting any exercise program.

Eat right Eat a heart-healthy diet low in sodium, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol and refined sugars. Try to increase your intake of foods rich in vitamins and other nutrients, especially antioxidants, which have been proven to lower your risk for heart disease. Also eat plant-based foods such as fruits and vegetables, nuts, and whole grains.

Achieve and maintain a healthy weight. Excess weight puts significant strain on your heart and worsens several other heart disease risk factors such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol and triglycerides. Research is showing that obesity itself increases heart disease risk. By eating right and exercising, you can lose weight and reduce your risk of heart disease.

Manage stress. Poorly controlled stress and anger can lead to heart attacks and strokes. Use stress and anger management techniques to lower your risk. Learn to manage stress by practicing relaxation techniques, learning how to manage your time, setting realistic goals, and trying some new techniques such as guided imagery, massage, Tai Chi or yoga.

Control diabetes. If not properly controlled, diabetes can lead to significant

+ نوشته شده در  سه شنبه دهم دی 1387ساعت 21:39  توسط مدیر وبلاگ  | 

جــدول شــماره (1) : اطلاعات آزمون ورودي دوره دكتري تخصصي (Ph.D.) سـال تحصيـلي 88-87

مواد امتحاني و ضرايب مربوطه

مدارك تحصيلي مورد پذيرش

نام رشته تحصيلي

رديف

آمار رياضي و احتمالات (2) روشهاي آماري (3) جمعيت شناسي (1) كليات پزشكي و بهداشت عمومي (1)

اصول و روشهاي اپيدميولوژي (2)

كارشناسي ارشد آمار زيستي ( حياتي )

آمار زيستي

1

اصول و روشهاي اپيدميولوژي ( 5/3) آمار زيستي (2) اپيدميولوژي بيماريهاي شايع كشور (2) نظام سلامت و برنامه هاي جاري آن ( 2) رياضيات پايه (5/0)

دكتري عمومي پزشكي ، داروسازي، دندانپزشكي، دامپزشكي و كارشناسي ارشد در يكي از رشته هاي مصوب وزارت بهداشت ، درمان و آموزش پزشكي

اپيدميولوژي

2

اقتصاد بهداشت و درمان (2) اقتصاد خرد و كلان(5/2) سازمان و مديريت بهداشت و درمان (2) اقتصاد سنجي ( 5/1) بهداشت و اپيدميولوژي (2)

دكتري عمومي پزشكي، دندانپزشكي، داروسازي، علوم آزمايشگاهي كارشناسي ارشد رشته هاي اقتصاد بهداشت مديريت خدمات بهداشتي درماني ، اپيدميولوژي و آمار زيستي

اقتصاد سلامت

3

ارتباطات در آموزش بهداشت (2) اصول و فلسفه آموزش بهداشت (2) تكنولوژي آموزشي در آموزش بهداشت (2) جامعه شناسي پزشكي (1) پويايي گروه (1) آمار (1)

كارشناسي ارشد آموزش بهداشت آموزش پرستاري آموزش مامايي - بهداشت مادر و كودك دكتري پزشكي دندانپزشكي و دامپزشكي

آموزش بهداشت

4

تك ياخته شناسي (3)كرم شناسي (3)

حشره شناسي پزشكي (1)هماتولوژي (1)

ايمني شناسي (1)باكتري شناسي و قارچ شناسي (1) بيوشيمي (1)

كارشناسي ارشد انگل شناسي پزشكي علوم آزمايشگاهي ميكربيولوژي پاتوبيولوژي دكتراي حرفه اي علوم آزمايشگاهي پزشك داروساز دامپزشك

انگل شناسي پزشكي

5

ايمني شناسي (5 ) بيوشيمي عمومي (5/1 )

ژنتيك مولكولي (1)

كارشناسي ارشد ايمني شناسي پاتوبيولوژي هماتولوژي علوم آزمايشگاهي بيوشيمي ميكروبشناسي
انگل شناسي زيست شناسي (غيراز گرايش گياهي )-
قارچ شناسي ويروس شناسي باكتري شناسي
دكتري عمومي گروه پزشكي * * - دكتري حرفه اي

علوم آزمايشگاهي

ايمني شناسي پزشكي

6

باكتري شناسي ( 5 ) ويروس شناسي (1)

انگل شناسي و قارچ شناسي (1)بيوشيمي (1)

ژنتيك مولكولي (1) ايمني شناسي (1)

كارشناسي ارشد ميكروبشناسي پزشكي پاتوبيولوژي باكتري شناسي بيولوژي سلولي و مولكولي - قارچ شناسي انگل شناسي ويروس شناسي دكتراي عمومي گروه پزشكي و دكتري حرفه اي علوم آزمايشگاهي

باكتري شناسي پزشكي

7

جنين شناسي (2) فيزيولوژي غدد (1) بيولوژي سلولي و مولكولي (3) بافت شناسي غدد (2) آناتومي لگن و پرينه(2)

دكتري پزشكي عمومي - دامپزشكي - دكتري حرفه اي علوم آزمايشگاهي و يا كارشناسي ارشد پرستاري - مامايي - فيزيولوژي - بيوشيمي باليني - ژنتيك انساني

ويروس شناسي پزشكي - ميكروب شناسي پزشكي-

ايمني شناسي پزشكي - خون شناسي آزمايشگاهي و بانك خون - علوم تشريحي - بيولوژي توليد مثل - بيولوژي جانوري با گرايش تكويني و فيزيولوژي

بيولوژي توليد مثل

8

كليات بهداشت محيط (2) مسائل و تكنولوژي آب و

فاضلاب (5 ) دفع مواد زائد جامد (5/1 ) آلودگي هوا

وكنترل آن (5/1 )

كارشناسي ارشد مهندسي بهداشت محيط مهندسي محيط زيست - مهندسي بهسازي مهندسي آب و فاضلاب

بهداشت محيط

9

بيوشيمي عمومي (ساختماني ) (4) فيزيولوژي عمومي (2 ) متابوليسم و اختلالات آن (3)

كارشناسي ارشد داروسازي- بيوشيمي باليني بيوشيمي - شيمي (با مدرك كارشناسي بيوشيمي ) – علوم تغذيه -دكتري عمومي پزشكي، دامپزشكي , داروسازي و دكتري حرفه اي علوم آزمايشگاهي

بيوشيمي باليني

10

حشره شناسي پزشكي (2) مالارياي پيشرفته (1) ليشمانيوز پيشرفته (1) زيست شناسي (2) حشره كش ها، بيوشيمي آفت كشها و مبارزه با بندپايان (2) اصول سيستماتيك حشرات (1) اكولوژي حشرات (1) اپيدميولوژي بيماريهاي منتقله به وسيله بندپايان (1)

كارشناسي ارشد حشره شناسي پزشكي انگل شناسي زيست شناسي ( به غير از گرايش گياهي ) – دكتراي عمومي گروه پزشكي و دكتري حرفه اي آزمايشگاهي

حشره شناسي پزشكي و مبارزه با ناقلين

11

نظريه ها و كاربرد آن در پرستاري (3) اصول و نظريه هاي مديريت و كاربرد آن در پرستاري (3) اصول و نظريه هاي آموزش و كاربرد آن در پرستاري (3) آمار و پژوهش در پرستاري (3)

كارشناسي ارشد در يكي از رشته هاي آموزش يا مديريت خدمات پرستاري و يا رشته ها وگرايش هاي مربوط كارشناسي ارشد هوشبري با ليسانس پرستاري

پرستاري

12

آمار و روش تحقيق (1) آزمونهاي رواني (1) بنيادهاي بيولوژيكي و فيزيولوژيكي رفتار (1) روانشناسي رشد (1) نظريه هاي شخصيت و روان درماني (1)

آسيب شناسي رواني (1)

كارشناسي ارشد روانشناسي باليني روانسنجي و رشته هاي روانشناسي (مشاوره ، تربيتي، عمومي و استثنائي ) – دكتري عمومي پزشكي

روانشناسي باليني

13

ژنتيك پزشكي و باليني (4) ژنتيك سرطان (2) ژنتيك ايمني (1) سيتوژنتيك (3) ژنتيك جمعيت (1) ژنتيك مولكولي و بيوشيميائي (3) مهندسي ژنتيك (2)

كارشناسي ارشد يا بالاتر در رشته ژنتيك بيوشيمي-
ايمني شناسي زيست شناسي (سلولي و مولكولي و ژنتيك)- دكتري عمومي گروه پزشكي و يا متخصصان رشته هاي مختلف پزشكي - دكتراي علوم آزمايشگاهي بيوتكنولوژي پزشكي

ژنتيك پزشكي

14

تشريح ( كالبد شناسي) (2) بافت شناسي (2)

جنين شناسي (2) تكنيك هاي ميكرو آناتومي (1)

بيولوژي سلولي و مولكولي (1)

كارشناسي ارشد علوم تشريحي ( آناتومي ) – جنين شناسي- بافت شناسي دكتري عمومي پزشكي ، دندانپزشكي ، دامپزشكي

علوم تشريحي

15

تغذيه (3) بيوشيمي (2) فيزيولوژي (2)

كارشناسي ارشد رشته علوم تغذيه علوم بهداشتي در تغذيه دكتري عمومي پزشكي و دامپزشكي

علوم تغذيه

 

16

فارماكولوژي (4) فيزيولوژي (2) بيوشيمي پزشكي (2)

كارشناسي ارشد فارماكولوژي دكتري عمومي گروه پزشكي دكتري حرفه اي علوم آزمايشگاهي

فارماكولوژي

17

الكتروتراپي ( 4 ) تمرين درماني ( 4 ) اورتزوپروتز ( 2 ) ارزشيابي و اندازه گيري ( 3 ) فيزيولوژي كار ( 2 ) نوروفيزيولوژي عصب و عضله ( 3 ) بيومكانيك ( شامل طبيعي و غير طبيعي) ( 3 )

كارشناسي ارشد فيزيوتراپي - دكتري عمومي پزشكي

فيزيوتراپي

18

فيزيولوژي (4 ) فارماكولوژي (2) آناتومي (2)

بيوشيمي (2)

كارشناسي ارشد فيزيولوژي فيزيولوژي انساني - فيزيولوژي جانوري - زيست شناسي ( گرايش جانوري و سلولي و مولكولي) - پرستاري ( از جمله بيهوشي) - مامايي دكتري عمومي گروه پزشكي

فيزيولوژي

19

رياضيات در فيزيك آمار و احتمالات (1) فيزيك پزشكي ( بيوالكتريسيته امواج صوتي و فراصوتي جريانهاي پرفركانس - نوروديدگاني اصول فيزيكي دستگاههاي پزشكي و آزمايشگاهي) (3) فيزيك پرتوها
(
فيزيك راديولوژي , MRI راديوتراپي پزشكي هسته اي و دوزيمتري) (3) فيزيك عمومي ( نور , الكتريسيته , مغناطيس ,ترموديناميك , مكانيك , الكترونيك پايه در سطح كارشناسي فيزيك ) (1) راديوبيولوژي و حفاظت در برابر پرتوهاي يونساز ) (1)

كارشناسي ارشد رشته هاي فيزيك پزشكي فيزيك بيوفيزيك مهندسي پزشكي مهندسي پرتوپزشكي تكنولوژي راديولوژي پزشكي

هسته اي دكتراي عمومي پزشكي

فيزيك پزشكي

 

20

قارچ شناسي (4) تك ياخته شناسي پزشكي (1) باكتري شناسي (1) ايمني شناسي (1)

كارشناسي ارشد قارچ شناسي پزشكي باكتري شناسي انگل شناسي پاتوبيولوژي دكتري عمومي پزشكي داروسازي و دامپزشكي دكتراي حرفه اي علوم آزمايشگاهي

قارچ شناسي پزشكي

21

تئوريهاي مديريت (2) برنامه ريزي در نظام بهداشت و درمان (2) آمار زيستي (1) سازمان و مديريت بهداشت و

درمان (2) اقتصاد بهداشت و درمان (1)

كارشناسي ارشد در رشته مديريت خدمات بهداشتي و درماني مديريت بيمارستان اقتصاد بهداشت - دكتراي عمومي گروه پزشكي

مديريت خدمات بهداشتي و درماني

22

مدارك پزشكي (2) مديريت اطلاعات بهداشتي درماني (2 ) اطلاع رساني پزشكي (2) اصطلاحات پزشكي (1)

تئوريهاي مديريت (3)

آموزش مدارك پزشكي كتابداري و اطلاع رساني پزشكي مديريت خدمات بهداشتي و درماني

مديريت اطلاعات بهداشتي و درماني

23

ويروس شناسي (6) ايمني شناسي (1) بيوشيمي عمومي (1) بيولوژي سلولي و ژنتيك مولكولي (1)

آمار حياتي و اپيدميولوژي (1)

كارشناسي ارشد ويروس شناسي پاتوبيولوژي
باكتري شناسي - علوم آزمايشگاهي - دامپزشكي
ايمني شناسي بيولوژي سلولي و مولكولي ميكروب شناسي دكتري حرفه اي گروه پزشكي - دكتراي حرفه اي علوم آزمايشگاهي

ويروس شناسي پزشكي

 

24

بهداشت باروري ( 4) بارداري و زايمان ( 3 ) بيماريهاي زنان و سرطانهاي شايع ( 2 )

كارشناسي ارشد در رشته مامايي - دكتري عمومي پزشكي - كارشناسي ارشد مديريت خدمات بهداشتي و درماني با مدرك كارشناسي بهداشت عمومي-

كارشناسي ارشد آموزش بهداشت با مدرك كارشناسي مامايي

بهداشت باروري

25

نظريه هاي مددكاري اجتماعي (4) روش تحقيق و آمار (3) مديريت و برنامه ريزي (2) مسائل و آسيب هاي اجتماعي (3)

كارشناسي ارشد مددكاري اجتماعي مديريت خدمات اجتماعي رفاه اجتماعي

مددكاري اجتماعي

26

هماتولوژي ( 3) ايمنوهماتولوژي و بانك خون( 3)

ايمني شناسي ( 2) بيولوژي سلولي و مولكولي ( 2)

كارشناسي ارشد هماتولوژي علوم آزمايشگاهي پاتوبيولوژي بيوشيمي ايمني شناسي دكتري عمومي گروه پزشكي و دكتري حرفه اي علوم آزمايشگاهي

هماتولوژي

27

زبان شناسي نظري وزبان شناسي باليني ( 2)

آسيب شناسي اختلالات رشدي و اكتسابي زبان (2)

روانشناسي زبان پيشرفته ( 2)

نوروفيزيولوژي و نوروآناتومي پيشرفته گفتار و زبان (2)

نوروپاتولوژي زبان (2)

آسيب شناسي و روشهاي درمان اختلالات گفتار (3)

كارشناسي گفتار درماني به انضمام مدرك كارشناسي ارشد در يكي از رشته هاي گفتار درماني ، زبانشناسي و كودكان استثنايي

گفتار درماني

28

روانشناسي و روانپزشكي ( 1) كاردرماني اختلالات ذهني رواني - اجتماعي ( 4) آناتومي و بيومكانيك ( 1) كاردرماني اختلالات جسماني و حرفه اي ( 4)

 

كارشناسي ارشد كاردرماني

كار درماني

29

بيوشيمي (2) ايمني شناسي (1) ميكروب شناسي (1)

زيست شناسي سلولي و مولكولي (3) ژنتيك (3)

كارشناسي ارشد باكتري شناسي، بيوشيمي، خون شناسي آزمايشگاهي و بانك خون، ايمني شناسي، ويروس شناسي، ژنتيك ، زيست فناوري پزشكي ( بيوتكنولوژي پزشكي)، زيست شناسي سلولي مولكولي، زيست شناسي با گرايش ميكروبيولوژي ، بيوتكنولوژي كشاورزي - انگل شناسي،
ميكروب شناسي، قارچ شناسي، دكتراي عمومي رشته هاي پزشكي، دامپزشكي ، داروسازي و دكتراي

حرفه اي علوم آزمايشگاهي

زيست فناوري پزشكي

30

نانوفن آوري (2)- بيوشيمي (2) - شيمي تجزيه

دستگاهي ( 1)- زيست شناسي سلولي - مولكولي و فيزيولوژي (3) - بيوفيزيك ( 2)

 

 

 

 

كارشناسي ارشد نانوفنآوري پزشكي - نانوتكنولوژي پزشكي - فيزيك ( همه گرايش ها) - شيمي ( همه گرايش ها) – مهندسي شيمي زيست شناسي ( همه گرايش ها )- مهندسي مواد ( كليه گرايش ها) 0 بيوتكنولوژي ايمني شناسي -0 اعضاي مصنوعي - انگل شناسي - بيوشيمي - بهداشت حرفه اي - حشره شناسي پزشكي - ژنتيك انساني علوم تغذيه علوم و صنايع غذايي - علوم بهداشتي در تغذيه فيزيولوژي فيزيوتراپي قارچ شناسي ميكروب شناسي ويروس شناسي پزشكي مهندسي بهداشت محيط

فيزيك پزشكي - سم شناسي - هماتولوژي - مهندسي پزشكي - دكتراي عمومي پزشكي دندانپزشكي و داروسازي

نانوفن آوري پزشكي

31

اپيدميولوژي و آمار حياتي ( 2) فيزيولوژي پزشكي ( 1) بيوشيمي و ژنتيك ( 3) ايمونولوژي و ميكروب شناسي (2)

دكتري عمومي پزشكي ، دندانپزشكي داروسازي دامپزشكي و مقاطع تخصصي و فوق تخصصي پزشكي و يا كارشناسي ارشد رشته هاي فيزيولوژي ، ژنتيك انساني، بيوتكنولوژي پزشكي ، خون شناسي آزمايشگاهي و بانك خون، ويروس شناسي ، ميكروبيولوژي ، زيست شناسي با گرايش غير گياهي ،

انگل شناسي - ايمونولوژي ، بيوشيمي و تغذيه

دكتري علوم آزمايشگاهي

پزشكي مولكولي

32

الكتروفيزيولوژي ( 4) نوروفيزيولوژي شنوايي و تعادل ( 3) درمان توانبخشي در آسيب هاي شنوايي و تعادل (3)

كارشناسي ارشد رشته شنوايي شناسي يا دكتري عمومي پزشكي

شنوايي شناسي

33

نوروبيولوژي سلولي ( 2) نوروفيزيولوژي ( 3) نوروفارماكولوژي ( 2) نوروآناتومي(3)

دكتري عمومي پزشكي ، دندانپزشكي ، داروسازي ،

كارشناسي ارشد رشته هاي فيزيولوژي ،

زيست شناسي ( با گرايش علوم سلولي و مولكولي ، علوم جانوري ، ميكروبيولوژي ، ژنتيك) ، ژنتيك انساني ، آناتومي ، سم شناسي ، بيوشيمي ، روانشناسي باليني ، فارماكولوژي

علوم اعصاب

34

ميكروبيولوژي مواد غذايي (2) شيمي مواد غذايي (2) تكنولوژي مواد غذايي (2) كنترل كيفي مواد غذايي (3)

كارشناسي ارشد در رشته هاي علوم و صنايع غذايي ،

شيمي مواد غذايي ، ميكروبيولوژي مواد غذايي ، مهندسي صنايع غذايي ، علوم غذايي

علوم و صنايع غذايي

35

 

مباني پروتئوميكس (5/3) بيولوژي سلولي و مولكولي ( 2) روشهاي بيوشيمي و بيوفيزيك ( 5/2) بيوانفورماتيك (2)

 

 

 

كارشناسي ارشد در يكي از رشته هاي بيوشيمي باليني ، شيمي ( گرايش هاي تجزيه و كاربردي ) ، زيست شناسي
(
گرايش هاي سلولي و مولكولي ، ژنتيك ، بيوفيزيك ، ميكروبيولوژي )‌ايمني شناسي پزشكي ، ميكروب شناسي پزشكي ، خون شناسي آزمايشگاهي و بانك خون ، فرآورده هاي بيولوژيك ، ويروس شناسي پزشكي ، بيوتكنولوژي ، فيزيولوژي ، نانوتكنولوژي پزشكي ، ژنتيك انساني ، دكتري عمومي گروه پزشكي ( پزشكي، دندانپزشكي ، داروسازي ، دامپزشكي ) زيست فناوري پزشكي ، نانوتكنولوژي ، دكتري حرفه اي علوم آزمايشگاهي

پروتئوميكس كاربردي

36

عوامل فيزيكي زيان آور محيط كار (1) عوامل شيميائي زيان آور محيط كار و تهويه صنعتي (1) سم شناسي صنعتي (1) بيماريهاي شغلي (1) ارگونومي ( مهندسي فاكتورهاي انساني) (1) ايمني و حوادث ناشي از كار (1)

كارشناسي ارشد بهداشت حرفه اي

بهداشت حرفه اي

37

ارتز(3)- پروتز(3)- بيومكانيك (2) ارتوپدي ( 2)

كارشناسي ارشد در رشته هاي اعضاي مصنوعي و وسايل كمكي و پزشكي عمومي

اعضاي مصنوعي

38

مباني فلسفه (2) انسان شناسي (1) مباني اخلاق پزشكي (4) مباني فقه و حقوق پزشكي (2) روش تحقيق در

علوم پزشكي (1)

دكتري حرفه اي پزشكي داروسازي داندانپزشكي و كارشناسان ارشد اخلاق پزشكي

اخلاق پزشكي

39

* *دكتري عمومي گروه پزشكي شامل پزشك- دندانپزشك- داروساز و دامپزشك مي باشد .

- دانشجوياني كه در مقطع كارشناسي ارشد يا دكتراي عمومي واحدهاي ضروري براي شروع دوره دكتراي تخصصي (Ph.D.) را نگذرانده باشند، در صورت قبولي بايد بر اساس آئين نامه ، قبل از شروع دوره واحدهاي پيش نياز را بگذرانند.

+ نوشته شده در  سه شنبه دهم دی 1387ساعت 21:6  توسط مدیر وبلاگ  | 

ریسک فاکتورهای قلبی

Risk Factors and Coronary Heart Disease AHA Scientific Position

Extensive clinical and statistical studies have identified several factors that increase the risk of coronary heart disease and heart attack. Major risk factors are those that research has shown significantly increase the risk of heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) disease. Other factors are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but their significance and prevalence haven't yet been precisely determined. They're called contributing risk factors.

The American Heart Association has identified several risk factors. Some of them can be modified, treated or controlled, and some can't. The more risk factors you have, the greater your chance of developing coronary heart disease. Also, the greater the level of each risk factor, the greater the risk. For example, a person with a total cholesterol of 300 mg/dL has a greater risk than someone with a total cholesterol of 245 mg/dL, even though everyone with a total cholesterol greater than 240 is considered high-risk.

What are the major risk factors that can't be changed?

Increasing age — Over 83 percent of people who die of coronary heart disease are 65 or older. At older ages, women who have heart attacks are more likely than men are to die from them within a few weeks.

Male sex (gender) — Men have a greater risk of heart attack than women do, and they have attacks earlier in life. Even after menopause, when women's death rate from heart disease increases, it's not as great as men's.

Heredity (including Race) — Children of parents with heart disease are more likely to develop it themselves. African Americans have more severe high blood pressure than Caucasians and a higher risk of heart disease. Heart disease risk is also higher among Mexican Americans, American Indians, native Hawaiians and some Asian Americans. This is partly due to higher rates of obesity and diabetes. Most people with a strong family history of heart disease have one or more other risk factors. Just as you can't control your age, sex and race, you can't control your family history. Therefore, it's even more important to treat and control any other risk factors you have.

What are the major risk factors you can modify, treat or control by changing your lifestyle or taking medicine?

Tobacco smoke — Smokers' risk of developing coronary heart disease is 2–4 times that of nonsmokers. Cigarette smoking is a powerful independent risk factor for sudden cardiac death in patients with coronary heart disease; smokers have about twice the risk of nonsmokers. Cigarette smoking also acts with other risk factors to greatly increase the risk for coronary heart disease. People who smoke cigars or pipes seem to have a higher risk of death from coronary heart disease (and possibly stroke) but their risk isn't as great as cigarette smokers'. Exposure to other people's smoke increases the risk of heart disease even for nonsmokers.

High blood cholesterol — As blood cholesterol rises, so does risk of coronary heart disease. When other risk factors (such as high blood pressure and tobacco smoke) are present, this risk increases even more. A person's cholesterol level is also affected by age, sex, heredity and diet.

High blood pressure — High blood pressure increases the heart's workload, causing the heart to thicken and become stiffer. It also increases your risk of stroke, heart attack, kidney failure and congestive heart failure. When high blood pressure exists with obesity, smoking, high blood cholesterol levels or diabetes, the risk of heart attack or stroke increases several times.

Physical inactivity — An inactive lifestyle is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Regular, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity helps prevent heart and blood vessel disease. The more vigorous the activity, the greater your benefits. However, even moderate-intensity activities help if done regularly and long term. Physical activity can help control blood cholesterol, diabetes and obesity, as well as help lower blood pressure in some people.

Obesity and overweight — People who have excess body fat — especially if a lot of it is at the waist — are more likely to develop heart disease and stroke even if they have no other risk factors. Excess weight increases the heart's work. It also raises blood pressure and blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and lowers HDL ("good") cholesterol levels. It can also make diabetes more likely to develop. Many obese and overweight people may have difficulty losing weight. But by losing even as few as 10 pounds, you can lower your heart disease risk.

Diabetes mellitus — Diabetes seriously increases your risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Even when glucose (blood sugar) levels are under control, diabetes increases the risk of heart disease and stroke, but the risks are even greater if blood sugar is not well controlled. About three-quarters of people with diabetes die of some form of heart or blood vessel disease. If you have diabetes, it's extremely important to work with your healthcare provider to manage it and control any other risk factors you can.

What other factors contribute to heart disease risk?

Individual response to stress may be a contributing factor. Some scientists have noted a relationship between coronary heart disease risk and stress in a person's life, their health behaviors and socioeconomic status. These factors may affect established risk factors. For example, people under stress may overeat, start smoking or smoke more than they otherwise would.

Drinking too much alcohol can raise blood pressure, cause heart failure and lead to stroke. It can contribute to high triglycerides, cancer and other diseases, and produce irregular heartbeats. It contributes to obesity, alcoholism, suicide and accidents.

The risk of heart disease in people who drink moderate amounts of alcohol (an average of one drink for women or two drinks for men per day) is lower than in nondrinkers. One drink is defined as 1-1/2 fluid ounces (fl oz) of 80-proof spirits (such as bourbon, Scotch, vodka, gin, etc.), 1 fl oz of 100-proof spirits, 4 fl oz of wine or 12 fl oz of beer. It's not recommended that nondrinkers start using alcohol or that drinkers increase the amount they drink.

+ نوشته شده در  سه شنبه دهم دی 1387ساعت 20:58  توسط مدیر وبلاگ  | 

با سلام

با تشکر از حسن انتخاب شما

ازشما بازدید کنندگان محترم درخواست میشود جهت ارسال پیشنهادات ومقالات علمی خود از قسمت پروفایل مدیریت  و یا پست الکترونیک اقدام نمائید.

                                                                                      با تشکر: مدیریت وبلاگ    

+ نوشته شده در  یکشنبه هشتم دی 1387ساعت 14:4  توسط مدیر وبلاگ  | 

بررسي آپوپتوزيس القاء شده توسط سيپروفلوكساسين

در بافت بيضة موش صحرايي با روش TUNEL

دکتر آرش خاكي*- دکترمعرفت غفاري نوين**- دکترعلي اكبرابراهيم نژاد*** -

دکتراميرافشين خاكي****

* استاديار بخش پاتولوژي دانشكده دامپزشكي دانشگاه آزاد اسلامي واحد تبريز

**استاديار گروه غدد توليد مثل وجنين‌شناسي مركز تحقيقات بيوتکنولوژي توليد مثل، پژوهشکده فناوري‌هاي نوين علوم‌پزشکي جهاد دانشگاهي ابن سينا تهران

*** مربي بخش ايمنوهيستوشيمي بيمارستان قائم، دانشگاه علوم پزشکي تبريز

**** استاديار بخش آناتومي دانشكده پزشکي دانشگاه علوم پزشکي تبريز

چكيده

مقدمه: سيپروفلوكساسين (Ciprofloxacin) يكي از آنتي بيوتيك‌ها‌ي خانواده فلوركينولون با طيف اثر وسيع بر باكتري‌هاست. اين دارو كاربرد گسترده‌اي در كنترل عفونت‌هاي ناشي از ميکـروب‌هاي گرم منفي و درمان عفونت‌هـاي دستگاه تناسلي- ادراري دارد و در 100 کشـور دنيـا براي درمـان استفاده مي‌شود.

هدف : مطالعـه مرگ برنامه‌ريزي شده(آپوپتوزيس) القاءشده توسط سيپروفلوکساسين در بافت بيضةموش صحرايي .

مواد و روش‌ها: 20سر موش صحرايي نر نژاد ويستار به دو گروه كنترل (10=n) و آزمايش (10=n) تقسيم شدند. در گروه كنترل موش‌ها به مدت 60 روز از غذا و آب در شرايط استاندارد استفاده كردند و در گروه آزمايش موش‌ها دوز درماني داروي سيپروفلوكساسين را به ميزان mg/kg5/12 به مدت 60 روز به صورت محلول در آب آشاميدني دريافت كردند. در روز شصتم، بافت بيضه در محلول فرمالين 10%، براي بررسي هيستوپاتولوژي مرگ برنامه‌ريزي شده (Apoptosis) به روش Tunel به آزمايشگاه پاتولوژي فرستاده شد.

نتـايج: ميزان سلول‌هاي آپوپتوتيك كه به رنگ قهوه‌اي درآمده بودند در گروه آزمايش 17/10± 15/15 و درگروه كنترل 41/2± 3 بود که اين تغييرات به ميزان (01/0 P) معني‌داربود.

نتيجه گيري: چون تعداد سلول‌هاي آپوپتوتيك در لوله‌هاي سميني‌فر نسبت به گروه كنترل به ميزان قابل توجهي افزايش يافته بود، مي‌توان نتيجه گرفت که اين دارو مي‌تواند سبب ناباروري در موش‌هاي نر شود.

+ نوشته شده در  یکشنبه هشتم دی 1387ساعت 13:31  توسط مدیر وبلاگ  | 

Page 1

“Pasteurized Milk” Explained

Pasteurization is a process that kills harmful bacteria by heating

milk to a specific temperature for a set period of time. First

developed by Louis Pasteur in 1864, pasteurization kills harmful

organisms responsible for such diseases as listeriosis, typhoid

fever, tuberculosis, diphtheria, and brucellosis.

Research shows no meaningful difference in the nutritional

values of pasteurized and unpasteurized milk. Pasteurized milk

contains low levels of the type of nonpathogenic bacteria that

can cause food spoilage, so storing your pasteurized milk in the

refrigerator is still important.

FOOD

FACTS

From the U.S. Food and Drug Administration

The Dangers of Raw Milk

Unpasteurized Milk Can Pose a Serious Health Risk

1

Milk and milk products provide a wealth of nutrition benefits. But raw milk can harbor

dangerous microorganisms that can pose serious health risks to you and your family. According

to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than 800 people in the United States

have gotten sick from drinking raw milk or eating cheese made from raw milk since 1998.

Raw milk is milk from cows, sheep, or goats that has not been pasteurized to kill harmful

bacteria. This raw, unpasteurized milk can carry dangerous bacteria such as Salmonella,

E. coli, and Listeria, which are responsible for causing numerous foodborne illnesses.

These harmful bacteria can seriously affect the health of anyone who drinks raw milk, or eats

foods made from raw milk. However, the bacteria in raw milk can be especially dangerous to

pregnant women, children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems.

Raw Milk and Serious Illness

Symptoms and Advice

Symptoms of foodborne illness include:

Vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain

Flulike symptoms such as fever, headache,

and body ache

While most healthy people will recover from an

illness caused by harmful bacteria in raw milk — or

in foods made with raw milk — within a short period

of time, some can develop symptoms that are chronic,

severe, or even life-threatening.

If you or someone you know becomes ill after

consuming raw milk or products made from raw milk

— or, if you are pregnant and think you could have

consumed contaminated raw milk or cheese — see

a doctor or healthcare provider immediately.

The Dangers of Listeria and Pregnancy

Pregnant women run a serious risk of

becoming ill from the bacteria Listeria

which can cause miscarriage, fetal death,

or illness or death of a newborn.

If you are pregnant, consuming raw

milk — or foods made from raw

milk, such as Mexican-style cheese

like Queso Blanco or Queso Fresco

— can harm your baby even if you

don’t feel sick.

Raw Milk & Pasteurization: Debunking Milk Myths

While pasteurization has helped provide safe, nutrient-rich

milk and cheese for over 120 years, some people continue to

believe that pasteurization harms milk and that raw milk is a

safe, healthier alternative.

Here are some common myths and proven facts about milk

and pasteurization:

Pasteurizing milk DOES NOT cause lactose intolerance and

allergic reactions. Both raw milk and pasteurized milk can

cause allergic reactions in people sensitive to milk proteins.

Raw milk DOES NOT kill dangerous pathogens by itself.

Pasteurization DOES NOT reduce milk’s nutritional value.

Pasteurization DOES NOT mean that it is safe to leave milk

out of the refrigerator for extended time, particularly after it

has been opened.

Pasteurization DOES kill harmful bacteria.

Pasteurization DOES save lives.

Safety

Health

Science

Nutrition

October 2006

Page 2

Safety

Health

Science

Nutrition

October 2006

Okay to Eat

Pasteurized milk or cream

Hard cheeses such as cheddar, and

extra hard grating cheeses such as

Parmesan

Soft cheeses, such as Brie,

Camembert, blue-veined cheeses,

and Mexican-style

soft cheeses such

as Queso Fresco,

Panela, Asadero,

and Queso Blanco

made from

pasteurized milk

Processed cheeses

Cream, cottage, and Ricotta cheese

made from pasteurized milk

Yogurt made from pasteurized milk

Pudding made from pasteurized milk

Ice cream or frozen yogurt made

from pasteurized milk

For more information, visit the FDA Web site at www.cfsan.fda.gov.

FOOD

FACTS

2

Most milk and milk products sold commercially in the United States

contain pasteurized milk or cream, or the products have been produced

in a manner that kills any dangerous bacteria that may be present.

But unpasteurized milk and products made from unpasteurized milk

are sold and may be harmful to your health. To avoid getting sick from

the dangerous bacteria found in raw milk, you should choose your milk

and milk products carefully. Consider these guidelines:

Everyone can practice safe food handling by following these four simple steps:

Protect Your Family with Wise Food Choices

Unsafe to Eat

Unpasteurized milk or

cream

Soft cheeses, such as

Brie and Camembert, and

Mexican-style soft cheeses

such as Queso Fresco,

Panela, Asadero, and

Queso Blanco made

from unpasteurized milk

Yogurt made from

unpasteurized milk

Pudding made from

unpasteurized milk

Ice cream or frozen yogurt

made from unpasteurized

milk

Is Your Homemade

Ice Cream Safe?

Each year, homemade ice cream causes

serious outbreaks of infection from

Salmonella. The ingredient responsible?

Raw or undercooked eggs. If you choose to

make ice cream at home, use a pasteurized

egg product, egg substitute, or pasteurized

shell eggs in place of the raw eggs in your

favorite recipe. There are also numerous

egg-free ice cream recipes available.

Made from

PASTEURIZED MILK

Queso Fresco

10 oz

When in Doubt — Ask!

Taking a few moments to make sure milk is

pasteurized — or that a product isn’t made from

raw milk — can protect you or your loved ones

from serious illness.

Read the label. Safe milk will have the

word “pasteurized” on the label. If the word

“pasteurized” does not appear on a product’s

label, it may contain raw milk.

Don’t hesitate to ask your grocer or store

clerk whether milk or cream has been

pasteurized, especially milk or milk products

sold in refrigerated cases at grocery or health

food stores.

Don’t buy milk or milk products at farm

stands or farmers’ markets unless you can

confirm that it has been pasteurized.

+ نوشته شده در  یکشنبه هشتم دی 1387ساعت 13:30  توسط مدیر وبلاگ  | 

 

Production of enterolysin A by a raw milk enterococcal isolate exhibiting multiple virulence factors

Rita M. Hickey1,3, Denis P. Twomey1,2, R. Paul Ross1 and Colin Hill2,3

1 Teagasc, Dairy Products Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland
2 National Food Biotechnology Centre, University College Cork, Ireland
3 Microbiology Department, University College Cork, Ireland

Correspondence
R. Paul Ross
pross@moorepark.teagasc.ie

Even though enterococci are a common cause of human infection they can readily be isolated from a range of food sources, including various meat and dairy products. An enterococcal strain, DPC5280, which exhibits a broad spectrum of inhibition against many Gram-positive bacteria was recently isolated from an Irish raw milk sample. Characterization of the inhibition revealed that the strain exhibits haemolytic activity characteristic of the two-component lantibiotic cytolysin and also produces a heat-labile antimicrobial protein of 34 kDa. The latter protein displayed cell wall hydrolytic activity, as evidenced by zymogram gels containing autoclaved lactococcal cells. N-terminal sequencing of the purified protein yielded the sequence ASNEWS which is 100 % identical to enterolysin A (accession no. AF249740), a protein which shares 28 and 29 % identity to the Gly-Gly endopeptidases, lysostaphin and zoocin A, respectively. Indeed, amplification of entL from DPC5280 and sequencing revealed that the protein is 100 % identical to enterolysin A. The DPC5280 strain also contained the determinants associated with multiple virulence factors, including gelatinase, aggregation substance and multiple antibiotic resistance. The linkage of this cell-wall-degrading enzyme to other virulence factors in enterococci may contribute to the competitiveness of pathogenic enterococci when found in complex microbial environments such as food and the gastrointestinal tract.

+ نوشته شده در  یکشنبه هشتم دی 1387ساعت 13:22  توسط مدیر وبلاگ  | 

AbstractListeria monocytogenes fecal shedding in dairy cattle shows high levels of day-to-day variation and includes outbreaks and sporadic cases of shedding of specific L. monocytogenes subtypes

A.J. Hoa, R. Ivanekb,

,

, Y.T. Gröhnb, K.K. Nightingalea, 1 and M. Wiedmanna

aDepartment of Food Science, 412 Stocking Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States bDepartment of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States


Received 13 May 2006;

revised 14 February 2007;

accepted 20 March 2007.

Available online 3 May 2007.

FPRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT=Purchase the full-text article"

 




References and further reading may be available for this article. To view references and further reading you must purchase this article.

Abstract

Fecal shedding of Listeria monocytogenes poses a risk for contamination of animal feed and agricultural environments and raw food at the pre-harvest stages of food production. To be able to reduce these risks it is critical to improve understanding of the epidemiology of L. monocytogenes shedding in feces. The objective of this study was to assess the daily variability of fecal shedding and its association with individual animal (lactation number and the day of current lactation) and environmental (feed) risk factors. That was achieved by application of longitudinal daily sample collection in a herd of dairy cattle and molecular characterization of isolated L. monocytogenes. Fecal samples (25) and silage samples (2) were collected daily during two 2-week periods and one 5-day period. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 255 out of 825 (31%) fecal samples on 24 out of 33 (73%) days, and from 25 out of 66 (38%) silage samples on 16 out of 33 (48%) days. Ninety-four percent of cows excreted L. monocytogenes in feces at least once during the study period. Our data analyses indicated that (i) the prevalence and incidence risk of L. monocytogenes fecal shedding in cattle vary considerably over time, from 0 to 100%, and both are associated with contamination of silage, (ii) L. monocytogenes fecal shedding in cattle could occur as part of an outbreak or as an isolated sporadic case, (iii) L. monocytogenes subtypes associated with human infections are commonly isolated from cattle feces and silage, and (iv) a single cow can harbor more than one L. monocytogenes subtype on any given day. Although limited to a single dairy cattle herd, these findings provide a significant advancement in the understanding of the epidemiology of L. monocytogenes fecal shedding in dairy cattle.

Keywords: L. monocytogenes; Shedding; Silage; Outbreak; Sporadic c

 

Fecal shedding of Listeria monocytogenes poses a risk for contamination of animal feed and agricultural environments and raw food at the pre-harvest stages of food production. To be able to reduce these risks it is critical to improve understanding of the epidemiology of L. monocytogenes shedding in feces. The objective of this study was to assess the daily variability of fecal shedding and its association with individual animal (lactation number and the day of current lactation) and environmental (feed) risk factors. That was achieved by application of longitudinal daily sample collection in a herd of dairy cattle and molecular characterization of isolated L. monocytogenes. Fecal samples (25) and silage samples (2) were collected daily during two 2-week periods and one 5-day period. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 255 out of 825 (31%) fecal samples on 24 out of 33 (73%) days, and from 25 out of 66 (38%) silage samples on 16 out of 33 (48%) days. Ninety-four percent of cows excreted L. monocytogenes in feces at least once during the study period. Our data analyses indicated that (i) the prevalence and incidence risk of L. monocytogenes fecal shedding in cattle vary considerably over time, from 0 to 100%, and both are associated with contamination of silage, (ii) L. monocytogenes fecal shedding in cattle could occur as part of an outbreak or as an isolated sporadic case, (iii) L. monocytogenes subtypes associated with human infections are commonly isolated from cattle feces and silage, and (iv) a single cow can harbor more than one L. monocytogenes subtype on any given day. Although limited to a single dairy cattle herd, these findings provide a significant advancement in the understanding of the epidemiology of L. monocytogenes fecal shedding in dairy cattle.

Keywords: L. monocytogenes; Shedding; Silage; Outbreak; Sporadic c

+ نوشته شده در  جمعه ششم دی 1387ساعت 16:1  توسط مدیر وبلاگ  | 

Listera monositogenes

 

 

Genetic Diversity of Listeria monocytogenes Strains from a High-Prevalence Dairy Farm

Monica K. Borucki,1,2* Clive C. Gay,3 James Reynolds,1 Katherine L. McElwain,2 So Hyun Kim,2,4 Douglas R. Call,2 and Donald P. Knowles1,2

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal Disease Research Unit, Pullman, Washington 99164-6630,1 Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-7040,2 Field Disease Investigation Unit, Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-6610,3 Department of Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, South Korea4

Received 7 December 2004/ Accepted 3 May 2005

Listeria monocytogenes is a significant food-borne human and veterinary pathogen. Contaminated silage commonly leads to disease in livestock, but the pervasive nature of the bacterium can make it difficult to identify the source of infection. An investigation of bovine listeriosis that occurred on a Pacific Northwest dairy farm ("farm A") revealed that the clinical strain was closely related to fecal strains from asymptomatic cows, and that farm environment was heavily contaminated with a diversity of L. monocytogenes strains. In addition, the farm A clinical strain was closely related to clinical and environmental strains obtained 1 year prior from a second Northwest dairy farm ("farm B"). To investigate the source(s) of contamination on farm A, environmental samples were collected from farm A at two time points. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis characterization of 538 isolates obtained from that farm identified 57 different AscI pulsovars. Fecal isolates obtained from individual cows were the most genetically diverse, with up to 94% of fecal samples containing more than one pulsovar. The maximum numbers of pulsovars and serotypes isolated from a fecal sample of one cow were 6 and 4, respectively. Serotype 1/2a was isolated most frequently at both time points. Microarray genotyping of bovine listeriosis, fecal, and silage strains from both farms identified four probes that differentiated listeriosis strains from environmental strains; however, no probe was common to both bovine listeriosis strains.

 

* Corresponding author. Mailing address: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal Disease Research Unit, Pullman, WA 99164-6630. Phone: (509) 335-7407. Fax: (509) 335-8328. E-mail: mborucki@vetmed.wsu.edu.

+ نوشته شده در  جمعه ششم دی 1387ساعت 15:37  توسط مدیر وبلاگ  | 

 

دانشگاه آزاد اسلامي تبريز

 

حوزة معاونت پژوهشي

گزارش نهايي طرح تحقيقاتي

موضوع :

مطالعه پاتوبيولوژيكي ديروفيلاريازيس در سگهاي شهرستان تبريز و حومه بين سالهاي 82-81

 

مجري طرح :

دكتر يعقوب قره داغي

سال اجراي طرح82-81

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

با تقدير و تشكر از :

رياست محترم دانشگاه

آزاد اسلامي تبريز

حوزة معاونت پژوهشي دانشگاه آزاد اسلامي

حوزة‌ معاونت پژوهشي سازمان مركزي

دانشگاه آزاد اسلامي

و كليه همكاران و اساتيدي كه

در انجام اين طرح پژوهشي

اينجانب را ياري

نموده اند

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

چكيده طرح پژوهشي

 

عامل بيماري ديروفيلاريازيس از گروه كرمها بوده و متعلق به خانواده فيلاري ايده و جنس ديروفيلاريا با گونه اختصاصي ايميتيس كه بنام كرم قلب معروف است. اين كرم انگل سيستيم قلبي- عروقي است. كرم هاي بالغ در بطن راست قلب، سرخرگ ششي و وريد اجوف خلفي زندگي مي كند. ميزباناتن اصلي آن سگ ، گرگ، روباه و ندرتا گربه و انسان هستند.

از نظر آسيب شناسي و بيماريزائي اين كرمها در شاخه هاي سرخرگ هاي ريوي بطرف سرخرگ لب هاي خلفي زيه بسر مي برند و ضايعات نيز از همين جا شروع مي شود. اولين ضايعات تورم جدار داخلي عروق است كه در سرخرگ لبي راست شايع تر است ولي در سرخرگ ريوي اصلي هم وجود دارد. عامل بيماري فوق در ساير ارگان ها نظير كبد، كليه ها، پوست ، چشم.... نيز ضايهات مختلفي را ايجاد مي نمايد بنابراين براي بررسي اين ضايعات و رسيدن به هدف اصلي طرح پژوهشي فوق، تعداد 50 قلاده سگ را بطور تصادفي انتخاب و پس از كالبد گشايي از حيث ضايعات آسيب شنلسي مورد بررسي قراردلديم.

بررسي نتايج نشان دادند كه اغلب ضايعات در سگ هاي مبتلا در سيستيم عروقي ريوي و قلب و كليه ها وجود داشتند بطوري از نظر ميزان درصد نمونه هاي مثبت بطور تقريبي بالاي 35% بود، بنابراين با توجه به اهميت بيماري فوق از بيماريهاي زئونوز برسي هاي دقيق ترو كنترل و پيشگيري از پر اهميت ترين موارد قابل توجه مي باشد.

 

 

 

 

 

 

+ نوشته شده در  جمعه ششم دی 1387ساعت 15:31  توسط مدیر وبلاگ  | 

+ نوشته شده در  پنجشنبه پنجم دی 1387ساعت 21:35  توسط مدیر وبلاگ  | 

Megaloblastik anemia

Blood Diseases

Anemias

Anemias | Overview of Anemia | Aplastic Anemia | Hemolytic Anemia | Iron-Deficiency Anemia | Megaloblastic Anemia | Sickle Cell Anemia

Megaloblastic (Pernicious) Anemia

What is megaloblastic (pernicious) anemia?

Megaloblastic (pernicious) anemia is a rare disorder in which the body does not absorb enough vitamin B12 from the digestive tract, resulting in an inadequate amount of red blood cells (RBCs) produced.

What causes megaloblastic (pernicious) anemia?

Megaloblastic (pernicious) anemia is more common in individuals of northern European descent. Megaloblastic (pernicious) anemia results from a lack of intrinsic factor in gastric secretions (a substance needed to absorb vitamin B12 from the gastrointestinal tract). Vitamin B12 deficiency results.

The inability to make intrinsic factor may be the result of chronic gastritis, or the result of a gastrectomy (removal of all or part of the stomach). Megaloblastic (pernicious) anemia may also be associated with type 1 diabetes, thyroid disease, and a family history of the disease.

What are the symptoms of megaloblastic (pernicious) anemia?

The following are the most common symptoms for megaloblastic (pernicious) anemia. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

weak muscles

numbness or tingling in hands and feet

difficulty walking

nausea

decreased appetite

weight loss

irritability

lack of energy or tiring easily (fatigue)

diarrhea

smooth and tender tongue

increased heart rate (tachycardia)

The symptoms of megaloblastic (pernicious) anemia may resemble other blood conditions or medical problems. Always consult your physician for a diagnosis.

How is megaloblastic (pernicious) anemia diagnosed?

Megaloblastic (pernicious) anemia is usually discovered during a medical examination through a routine blood test. In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, diagnostic procedures for megaloblastic (pernicious) anemia may include additional blood tests and other evaluation procedures, including the Schilling test.

The Schilling test is performed to detect vitamin B12 absorption. In the Schilling test, vitamin B12 levels are measured in the urine after the ingestion of radioactive vitamin B12. With normal absorption, the ileum (portion of the small intestine) absorbs more vitamin B12 than the body needs and excretes the excess into the urine. With impaired absorption, however, little or no vitamin B12 is excreted into the urine.

Treatment for megaloblastic (pernicious) anemia:

Specific treatment for megaloblastic (pernicious) anemia will be determined by your physician based on:

your age, overall health, and medical history
extent of the disease
your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
expectations for the course of the disease
your opinion or preference
Treatment may include vitamin B12 injections.

Foods that are rich in folic acid include the following:

orange juice

oranges

romaine lettuce

spinach

liver

rice

barley

sprouts

wheat germ

soy beans

green, leafy vegetables

beans

peanuts

broccoli

asparagus

peas

lentils

wheat germ

chick peas (garbanzo beans)

Foods that are rich in folic acid and vitamin B12 include the following:

eggs

meat

poultry

milk

shellfish

fortified cereals


This page was last updated on: January 30, 2008.

For patient inquiries, call 1-800-492-5538 or click here to make an appointment.

+ نوشته شده در  چهارشنبه چهارم دی 1387ساعت 2:34  توسط مدیر وبلاگ  |